X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) is a surface-sensitive quantitative analysis method to accurately determine the elemental composition of solid materials. The technique is the most extended tool for the chemical characterization of thin films coatings and surfaces either for industrial applications as well as for research
Supercapacitors also called electrochemical double layer capacitors are energy storage devices storing a high volume of electric energy in the double layer between a high surface area electrode and an electrolyte. As compared to batteries no chemical reactions should occur at the electrodes.
Solderability testing refers to the process of evaluating the solderability of terminations (i.e., component leads, lugs, terminals, wires, etc.). which are normally joined by a soldering operation. The solderability determination is based on the ability of the terminations to be wetted by the molten solder after accelerated aging.
This article investigates the impedance of the three standard passive circuit components (R, L, and C) as well as the frequency response of a PCB trace. It is shown that a PCB trace can be modeled as a resonant RLC network just like the standard components and effectively constitutes the fourth circuit component whose frequency behavior directly affects the impedance of the resistors, inductors, and capacitors on a PCB.
Capacitors are used in both analog and digital circuits to remove unwanted signals. The filtering performance of a capacitor or filtering circuit is commonly described in terms of insertion loss. Some of the factors that significantly affect the insertion loss performance of a filtering circuit include configuration of the filtering elements, impedance, and load current.
Depending on the intended application electrical components are exposed to either transitory or permanent dynamic mechanical stress which can impair the performance (e.g. mechanically induced crack in PCBs systems or fretting corrosion in connectors and others).
XRF is a non-destructive and quick analytical tool to determine the chemical elements present in the specimen. In particular, it combines low detection limit (particularly in the case of heavy elements) with quick and easy sample preparation.