The use of EEE parts in Space missions involves several considerations that are not usual or critical in other industrial fields. Some typical examples of this are outgassing and radiation characteristics. However, another critical aspect that is not always considered is physical space. In Space applications
A low-current, negative high-voltage is required to bias sensors in advanced driver assistance systems, ultrasonic transducers for sonar applications and communications equipment. Flyback, Cuk and inverting buck-boost converters are all possible solutions but are penalized by bulky transformers (flyback and Cuk) or limited in their maximum negative voltage by the controller’s input-voltage rating (inverting buck-boost).